I think the problem with OCaml is that it isn't too useful "out of the box". The eventual reason why people use a language is because it has libraries they need. With nothing "out of the box", though, nobody gets far enough into a project to realize that they need to write a library. The result is a language with no libraries, which makes it hard to write "real apps".
I think this is what OCaml suffers from -- nobody bothers to start "real projects" in it because all there is is a programming language. Yay, I can add two and two and print the result. The result is a collection of libraries that are mostly academic abandonware (the author got his PhD and moved on), which isn't too helpful for practicing programmers.
(I know there is work under way to change this, with projects like "Batteries Included". Come back here in 5 years, and perhaps OCaml will be more popular.)
There are some exceptions to this rule. Java started off with no libraries, but Sun paid people to write them all in house, and then they marked the hell out of it. Java certification, Java-specific hardware, Java books, Java classes, etc. Then even convinced most universities to teach it exclusively, even though it isn't a very good language to use for learning programming.
The result was popularity. Money can solve a lot of problems.
Over in the functional language arena, we can see that Haskell is becoming quite popular. I think most of the popularity is due to people like dons that write useful libraries, and never stop marketing the langauge. Every day you see a few Haskell articles on Programming Reddit. This keeps it stuck in peoples' minds until they finally decide, "I am going to try Haskell." When they do, they see useful things like web frameworks, object databases, OpenGL libraries, and XML processing libraries. This means that they can actually do something useful "Right Now". So between the potential to be productive and hearing about it a lot, Haskell has gained a lot of popularity.
CL has many of the same libraries as Haskell and is almost as fast, but nobody talks about it, so it "feels dead". Indeed #lisp is much quieter than #haskell, but Lisp is still a very productive language with a lot of libraries. No other language has SLIME. But marketing is very important, and Haskell does it better than Lisp or OCaml (and competes for the same userbase).
Finally, some people will never "get" programming, so breaking their mental model (variables are boxes with values, code executes top-to-bottom) will ensure that they don't use your language. This type of programmer is a large percentage of the programming population, so this further limits the possible userbase of abstract languages like Lisp, Haskell, and OCaml.